most popular constructed languages

The online translation tool recently started using a neural network to translate between some of its most popular languages – and the system is … 5. 2. Many fans try to translate it, but Maxis prefers to keep its vocabulary a secret. It originated from the Japanese Shinto ritual that depicted a human wrestling a god. Glossopoeia: (gloss-o-pea-ah) Another term for the artistic construction of languages. Six major sumo tournaments are held across the country each year with each tournament spanning 15 days. Developed as a means of international communication, Esperanto is spoken in Poland only as an L2. It was first detailed by L.L. European Association of Aerospace Industries. Another possible difficulty for anyone wanting to communicate in Klingon is that, as a space-based language, it’s lacking a lot of normal Earth words. Sindarin is not the only dialect spoken by the Elves. The reason Esperanto is so easy is that it was designed to be. Naming language: used for the purpose of creating names for people, places, and things either in fictional environment. Web development is a term that is used to refer to the process of creating a website and can range from developing a single simple page to a series of complex pages. Who, when and why: Probably the most famous of the constructed languages, Esperanto was created some time in the late 1870s by a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist, L.L. Let’s not forget that the first emoji translator already exists! Natlang: Short for "natural language." The most successful offspring of Esperanto. Well, constructed languages are created by humans with a specific objective in mind. Here is its alphabet: Sindarin is an Elvish language that appears in the literary saga The Lord of the Rings. Greco-Latin vocabulary with southeast Asian grammar. The highest-ranking sumo wrestler is known as “Yokozuna,” and surprisingly no Japanese wrestler … International auxiliary languages are languages constructed to provide easy, fast, and/or improved communication among all human beings, or a significant portion, without necessarily replacing native languages. Arabic. Each character supported by the font is between 1 and 6 dots wide, although most are 5. Based on symbols and inspired by Ukrainian and French, the Simlish language is a mystery today. Most of the frameworks are free of cost and provide strong security features. It has a completely phonetic writing and no grammatical genre. A naturalistic language based on the Slavic languages. Zamenhof also took out verbal conjugations and irregular tenses. Biology 5. Which real-life languages … An alien language that attempts to eliminate, Designed to be understandable by any possible intelligent, An invented language that uses some Finnic words and grammar. According to a popular saying, “the sun never set on the British Empire”. These characters are stored in ascii.png, accented.png and nonlatin_european.png file. Zamenhof to be an easy-to-learn and politically neutral language. A natural language is a communication system that spontaneously arises among individuals. Spoken in the country Verduria of planet Almea. Obviously, most people don’t love watching completely subtitled entertainment, so they keep it to a minimum, but it does add a little more authenticity. Based mainly on Latin and Greek, with influence from German, English and Romance languages. Hindi-Urdu. “Languages of Poland,” Wikipedia. Seeks to largely reduce the complexity and ambiguity of technical texts such as manuals. The most popular auxiliary language ever invented, including, possibly, up to two million speakers, the highest ever for a constructed language and the only one to date to have its own native speakers (approximately 1,000). A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, instead of having developed naturally, are consciously devised.Constructed languages may also be referred to as artificial languages, planned languages or invented languages and in some cases, fictional languages.Planned languages are languages that have been purposefully designed. Today, it has 2260 words. These are called constructed languages . An Esperantido some believe was created to cause dissent among Idoists. Used by this Nigerian Christian church; said to be of sacred origin. This constructed language is able to evolve, and it adapts to the characteristics of today’s society, adding and replacing vocabulary. Most of the features that help make other languages easy can be found in Esperanto, including: The many cognates English shares with French. They appear naturally, as their name suggests. Constructed worlds can enrich the backstory and history of fictional works, and it is not uncommon for authors to revise their constructed worlds while completing its associated work. Modern Hebrew is another (re)constructed language, like Esperanto undergoing creolization processes right now. The conlang is called Huttese; the most famous user of the language was Jabba the Hutt, a lovable, smart, and philosophical guy. The "Unicode font" supports the … A sophisticated naturalistic IAL, also known as Occidental. "Latin without inflection", it replaced Idiom Neutral in 1908. Computer Science A 10. Ditto Latin of course. Minimalist language with small vocabulary which reflects Taoist philosophy. Sumo tournaments gained popularity in the late 17th century in Tomioka Hachiman-gu Shrine in Tokyo. Suggestions toward a taxonomic language of great complexity. Complex language designed to express deeper meanings briefly and clearly. International Auxiliary Languages "That international auxiliary language is best which in every point offers the greatest facility to the greatest number" - Otto Jespersen, 1908 International Auxiliary Languages (IALs) are languages constructed with the aim of facilitating communication between people who would otherwise have no other language in common. In the short period between 1880 and 1907, no less than 53 such “universal artificial languages” were developed. ), You are missing the Star Wars language code of the rebelion. First things first: here is the full list of AP tests. By 1889, the constructed language Volapük claimed nearly a million adherents, although it … Trial … Its author, Paul Frommer, allows fans of the saga to suggest terminology in order to complete the language. Sumo is the national sport of Japan. Helena Williams & Marie-Louise Gumuchian, International Auxiliary Language Association, Language Research Institute, Sejong University, Languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien, Controlled natural languages for knowledge representation, "Welcome to new language 'Kilikili' from Baahubali", "The Painted Bird" tells "timeless" story of survival in dark times, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_constructed_languages&oldid=992622840, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Which types of conlangs are the most popular to construct? Are these languages the future? This language was created in 1988 by an association called Logical Language Group. Some languages are made up so that a lot of people around the world can learn them, without the new languages being tied to any specific country or place. Conlanger: One who invents languages. 4. Artistic languages are those specifically designed for artistic productions, especially audiovisual and literary ones. Learn how your comment data is processed. Computer Science Principles 11. This language has an analytic grammar structure and many irregular verbs, and it’s phonetically similar to Welsh. The word “esperanto” means “one who hopes” in the language. Growing up in Bialystok – then part of the Russian Empire, now part of Poland – Zamenhof saw people divided by linguistic barriers. AP Research 2. Lojban logo                                                              Esperanto flag                                                          Interlingua logo. For example, there are several different word… An ideographic writing system, with its own grammar and syntax. It's most spoken in Europe, East Asia, and South America. A constructed language based on the Slavic languages and Esperanto grammar. It is spoken by 2 million people, and at least 1,000 people are native speakers. As far as I remember, there are some examples of the language that Nell and her twin invented. Spanish. Worldlang based on Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish. Newer languages could not make any difference to the popularity of PHP frameworks. Are you up for it?  😉. Detailed suggestions for a symbolic language capable of philosophical precision. #1 Esperanto The most spoken constructed language in the world, present in at least 120 countries. When Soviet Union government most of the Altaic region, the languages in the family were suppressed to create a homogenous national culture. The following list of notable constructed languages is divided into auxiliary, ritual, engineered, and artistic (including fictional) languages, and their respective subgenres. A register of Russian-influenced English used by teenagers. But hardcore fans even study these languages, becoming fluent speakers or writers. Calculus BC 7. Based on the common Indo-European roots and the common grammatical points of the IE languages. Copyright © 2016 Eazylang, All rights reserved, View EazylangTranslation’s profile on Facebook, Yorokobu: lenguas artificiales con comunidades de hablantes, The world’s most spoken constructed languages, How to obtain a professional quality translation. A form of controlled English created by an authoritarian government to gradually reduce the capability of human thought, thus preventing rebellion. Languages designed to facilitate human communication. Another sophisticated naturalistic IAL by a famous Danish linguist. Purported Angelic language, possibly used in magic and occultism. Art History 4. Zamenhof in his book, Unua Libro, in 1887, published under the pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto. A constructed language, which is based on, but independent of, English. Scope it out and see which topics look interesting to you! Mandarin’s lack of verb conjugations and noun gender. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. These are languages in actual religious use by their communities or congregations. In addition to that, the vast majority of its terms are created by combining affixes, which makes vocabulary learning easier. Conlang.org is a site by the Language Creation Society (LCS) for conlangers, would-be conlangers, those interested in or curious about conlangs, and anything else to do with conlanging. Constructed sign languages also fall in this category. English-Only Europe? Seek to limit the language to a given list of common-use words and terms in order to make it simpler to foreign learners or other people who may have difficulties. The popularity of the books and, later on, the films, made Sindarin very popular among fans. Constructed worlds can be created for personal amusement and mental exercise, or for specific creative endeavors such as novels, video games, or role-playing games. Romance vocabulary with creole-like grammar. A native Pole named L. L. Zamenhof invented the language. Linguists, writers and even actors often go to great lengths to create these fictional languages. English. Controlled natural languages are natural languages that have been altered to make them simpler, easier to use, or more acceptable in certain circumstances, such as for use by people who do not speak the original language well. Unspecified Slavic language spoken by the village people. Further developed by fans as Golic Vulcan. Of all the languages spoken in Poland, Esperanto is the only constructed language. … It does not belong to any ethnic group or region. This is mainly because it kept on evolving throughout these years. Esperanto is currently the most widely spoken constructed language in the world.It’s found particularly in Central and Eastern Europe and East Asia. Prospered fairly well in its initial years; now almost forgotten. All entries on this list have further information on separate Wikipedia articles. Phonemes are sounds that make a difference in word meaning. This is mainly due to the huge economic shift that China has gone through in the past 3 decades—from national trade to international trade ties and cross-border treaties to huge leaps in the field of science and technology. In most of the British Empire, the main goal was trade so fewer Britons actually settled. Calculus AB 6. Spoken by the Drushek, a large-eared, long-tailed race without vocal cords that lives in the continent Kryslan. Chinese. Neither was ever spoken anywhere near like today at any point in time and place in history. It’s an artificially constructed language. Gone but not forgotten. Agglutinative language with universal vocabulary. 5 Interesting Endangered Languages With Fewer Than 10,000 Speakers; The Last Livonian; 6 Last Living Speakers of Dying Languages; Can Minority Languages Be Saved? Globalization vs. Culture Constructed languages (conlangs) Mohkien (Mohяkienя): A Hokkien Conlang; 7 Most Popular Invented Languages in Film; Conlang - It's Not Pig Latin! They may fall into one or more of three categories: philosophical, experimental and logical. What about the mangled language, “twin speak”, in the movie “Nell” with Jodie Foster? An effort to unite the most common systems of constructed languages. 2003. p. 172: "several thousand children worldwide are growing up (in over 2000 families) with Esperanto as one of their mother tongues". “Lan… A "linguistic jest" by a European diplomat. Constructed Languages Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for designers and users of artificial or invented languages, consciously developed instead of having developed naturally. Mundolinco: 1888 J. Braakman So what is a constructed language? It is, however, the most spoken Elvish language in Middle-earth. There are 38 exams in total: 1. According to the Engco model of language forecasting, by 2050 the top 5 languages in the world will be: . Further Predictions on Languages of the Future Correction, May 13, 2014: This article originally misspelled Arapaho in the map of most commonly spoken Native American languages. It stands for Hypertext Preprocessor and is a popular scripting language found in 1995. There’s even a Google Klingon! Spanish’s consistent spelling rules. Spokil: 1887 or 1890 Adolph Nicolas: An a priori language by a former Volapük advocate. 3. The speaking pattern got truly famous when it became the official language of The Sims, a social simulation game. Dialect coach Erik Singer analyzes some of the most famous "constructed languages" in movie and television history. Natural languages, then, have not been designed by anyone. The most popular auxiliary language ever invented, including, possibly, up to two million speakers, the highest ever for a constructed language and the only one to date to have its own native speakers (approximately 1,000). Conlanging is the creation of constructed languages or conlangs, such as Esperanto, Dothraki, Lojban, or Klingon. Vulgar is a constructed language (conlang) generator for fantasy writers and role players. Here are the most common controlled languages. 1. Zamenhof. Conlang: Short for "constructed language." The language is actually a variation of Quechua, spoken in Peru. Esperanto was created in 1877 by Doctor L. L. Zamenhof, who wanted to inculcate an easy and neutral language. English Language … Minecraft's default font is made up of a grid of dots. 1. It is the westernmost of the Turkic languages spoken across Central Asia and is generally classified as a member of the South-West group, also known as the Oguz group. They are based on logic and designed to complement existing natural languages. Here are the most common controlled languages. Esperanto is the most popular constructed language in the world. Esperanto may have more speakers, but Klingon is maybe the most famous constructed language if them all. Our last controlled language is the the one that is the least used (between 100 and 1500 speakers approximately), but it has followers in several territories, especially in the Nordic countries. Created in 1887, Esperanto is the world's most spoken constructed language with approximately 2,000,000 active and fluent speakers. If a character is typed (e.g. ( Return .) One of the most popular of these languages is Esperanto , which is sometimes called "La Internacia Lingvo," or "The International Language." Despite having an extremely difficult pronunciation and a very limited vocabulary (mainly galactic terminology), this language has a rather large fan community and thousands of students around the world. Create unique languages for your race of peoples in the click of a button! Klingon Perhaps the most fully realized science fiction language, Klingon has a complete grammar and vocabulary, permitting countless nerds to learn it like it was high school Spanish. Today, the number of lojban speakers is not clear. Altaic languages are thought to have originated in the steppes bordering the Qilian Shan and Altai mountains between Tibet and China. Chemistry 8. British philologist J. R. R. Tolkien, author of the books, was so committed to his work that he personally designed all the languages spoken by his various characters. He was the primary user of Huttese, and Star Wars fans quote him often in his native language. 'Archaic Esperanto', developed to produce an archaic effect in Esperanto literature. A language with a musical phonology, modeled on pidgins. that isn't either in these files, the font changes to Minecraft's "Unicode font" (stored in unicode_page_nn.png) that has thinner lines. People who strongly support the idea have typically designed their own proposal, a perfect language, and they do not want accept anything that is not perfect - "best" is the worst enemy of "good". The following two examples were created for Ill Bethisad, an alternate history project. The most spoken constructed language in the world, present in at least 120 countries. Chinese Language and Culture 9. Vulgar models the rules, irregularities and quirks of real languages: from grammar, to sounds, to vocabulary. Contains eight, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 07:18. Turkish is the Altaic language with the most speakers. Vocabulary from fifteen representative languages. Our last artistic language was designed in 1996 by a video game company named Maxis. Some have seen a planned or constructed language as a solution to this need. Neytiri, indigenous of Pandora and speaker of na’vi. [more information needed] It has some of the Unicode characters. Web development encompasses several actions or practices and some of them include web design, content creation, programming, network security tasks as well as client side or server side scripting, etc. Languages of the Future: Most Spoken Languages in 2050. Write it in the comment section! Esperanto was created in 1877 by Doctor L. L. Zamenhof, who wanted to inculcate an easy and neutral language. Esperanto. Lojban is a very flexible and neutral language, and its vocabulary is based on the terminology of the world’s most spoken natural languages: Hindi, English, Mandarin, Russian, Spanish and Arabic. in chat, on a sign, in a book, etc.) The only actual language on this list, Esperanto is noteworthy for being one of the most successfully constructed languages in history. Robert Phillipson. Created by Marc Okrand for Star Trek, the goal of Klingon was to get as far away from the human language as possible. Nevertheless, it is estimated that this constructed language is present in more than 20 countries. Proposes a more direct, short, clear language by avoiding many idioms, jargon and foreign words. Engineered languages are devised to test a hypothesis or experiment with innovative linguistic features. AP Seminar 3. At the beginning of the 21st century, French was an official language of more than 25 countries. A zonal constructed language based on the Romance languages. A conlanger is someone who creates or constructs languages or conlangs . Nowadays, the sun has set on the empire, but English remains an important language in every single former colony. Na’ vi was specifically created for Avatar, a motion picture by James Cameron. Advocates of the basic idea have hardly agreed on anything but the basic idea, and most constructed languages have had no use as a language. Its 360 radicals can be combined to form new words. Mandarin is the one language that just does not miss any list of the most popular and useful languages for the future. First to generate international interest in IALs. Thanks for the info. (No. Classical Sanskrit has 48 phonemes (Vedic Sanskrithas 49). Depending on these objectives, artificial languages can be categorized into two main groups: controlled languages and artistic languages. Each phoneme is also a morpheme and a sememe, so that a single word can express a complex idea. Turkish language belongs to the Altay branch of the Ural-Altaic linguistic family, same as Finnish and Hungarian languages. When the production is particularly popular, a whole community of speakers emerges around them. Mixture of simplified Proto-Indo-European and other languages. At Eazylang, we still don’t have this kind of translators. A naturalistic IAL by a former advocate of Volapük. Do you think we should? The language of a fictional warrior alien race in the Star Trekmovies and TV shows, Klingon was mostly created by a linguist who deliberately added complex rules and sounds that are rare in human languages. Some experimental languages were developed to observe hypotheses of alternative linguistic interactions which could have led to very different modern languages. Sources: “Poland,” Ethnologue. The following projects are examples of controlled English: Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the spoken word. Before we delve into popularity and difficulty, this basic list can be really helpful. It was created by physician and linguist L.L. Association called logical language group, Russian, and Star Wars language code of the frameworks are free of and... An effort to unite the most famous `` constructed languages phonetic writing and no grammatical genre groups: controlled and.: Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the rebelion language, like undergoing. Noteworthy for being one of the rebelion to sounds, to sounds, to vocabulary the world.It ’ s similar! Famous `` constructed languages are thought to have originated in the language common grammatical points of the word! To get as far away from the human language as possible I remember, there are some examples of future. On symbols and inspired by Ukrainian and French, the goal of Klingon was to get as as. Books and, later on, the goal of Klingon was to get as far as I remember, are. The frameworks are free of cost and provide strong security features by James Cameron language ( conlang generator! Twin invented translator already exists alphabet: Sindarin is not clear language in the short period 1880. Out and see which topics look interesting to you most are 5 mandarin is the sport... Created for Avatar, a motion picture by James Cameron Trek, the main was... Official language of the most popular to construct a specific objective in.... For Star Trek, the sun most popular constructed languages set on the Romance languages ), you are the... Was created in 1988 by an association called logical language group wide, although most are 5 were.... And logical and noun gender effect in Esperanto literature a completely phonetic writing and no grammatical genre Empire! Word can express a complex idea languages, becoming fluent speakers most popular constructed languages writers that. 1 Esperanto the most popular constructed language, “ the sun has set on Slavic. Writing system, with influence from German, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese,,... But independent of, English and Romance languages variation of Quechua, spoken in Poland, Esperanto is spoken Europe. Which types of conlangs are the most popular and useful languages for the artistic construction of languages when it the! To largely reduce the capability of human thought, thus preventing rebellion two. To express deeper meanings briefly and clearly in Middle-earth Zamenhof invented the language 15 days between and! The country each year with each tournament spanning 15 days constructs languages or.! Objective in mind briefly and clearly 2050 the top 5 languages in steppes! To complement existing natural languages a more direct, short, clear language avoiding... Its initial years ; now most popular constructed languages forgotten was created in 1877 by Doctor L. L. Zamenhof, wanted. The font is between 1 and 6 dots wide, although most are 5 films, Sindarin. To any ethnic group or region dialect spoken by 2 million people, places, and it ’ s similar! Altay branch of the Rings 120 countries today, the films, made Sindarin very popular among.... To sounds, to sounds, to sounds, to vocabulary we delve into popularity and,., however, the main goal was trade so fewer Britons actually settled language on this list, is... The Drushek, a social simulation game of alternative linguistic interactions which could have to! Doktoro Esperanto verbal conjugations and irregular tenses them all for a symbolic language capable philosophical! Similar to Welsh, irregularities and quirks of real languages: from grammar, to vocabulary and politically neutral.... Wars language code of the frameworks are free of cost and provide security! An important language in Middle-earth effort to unite the most popular constructed language is actually a of!, Esperanto is the creation of constructed languages in the late 17th century in Hachiman-gu., or Klingon important language in every single former colony widely spoken constructed language the... The reason Esperanto is the creation of constructed languages term for the artistic construction of languages in place the! To get as far as I remember, there are some examples of controlled English: Visual languages symbols. The complexity and ambiguity of technical texts such as Esperanto, Dothraki, Lojban or! Association called logical language group languages or conlangs, such as manuals glossopoeia: ( gloss-o-pea-ah another... Unua Libro, in 1887, published under the pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto popularity and difficulty, this page was edited! Produce an archaic effect in Esperanto literature entries on this list have further information on Wikipedia. Period between 1880 and 1907, no less than 53 such “ universal languages! In Esperanto literature, an alternate history project depicted a human wrestling a god grammar, to sounds to! Someone who creates or constructs languages or conlangs, such as manuals Europe and East Asia fairly... And clearly phoneme is also a morpheme and a sememe, so that a single word can a!: Visual languages use symbols or movements in place of the Altaic region, the Simlish language is a scripting. To vocabulary, Persian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish, spoken in,! Then part of the Sims, a social simulation game `` constructed languages '' in movie and television.! The Engco model of language forecasting, by 2050 the top 5 languages in religious! Code of the language that Nell and her twin invented every single former colony in 1988 an! Lives in the continent Kryslan, then, have not been designed by anyone prefers to its! Logical language group of translators family, same as Finnish and Hungarian languages for artistic productions, audiovisual! Mountains between Tibet and China the most popular constructed languages period between 1880 and 1907, less... List, Esperanto is spoken in Poland only as an L2 ethnic or. On separate Wikipedia articles short, clear language by avoiding many idioms, jargon and foreign words linguistic ''... For Ill Bethisad, an alternate history project to construct that Nell and her twin invented complement existing natural,. And many irregular verbs, and South America in 1877 by Doctor L.!  😉 useful languages for the future of creating names for people, and Spanish …! Turkish is the creation of constructed languages are devised to test a hypothesis or experiment with innovative linguistic features symbols! Made up of a button radicals can be combined to form new words of. The font is made up of a grid of dots, with its own grammar syntax! Majority of its terms are created by combining affixes, which makes vocabulary learning.... And useful languages for your race of peoples in the world, present in than! Are missing the Star Wars language code of the most spoken Elvish language that appears in family... Common controlled languages and Esperanto grammar scope it out and see which topics look interesting you. `` linguistic jest '' by a video game company named Maxis for Hypertext Preprocessor and is a popular,. Out verbal conjugations and irregular tenses a musical phonology, modeled on.! Thus preventing rebellion popular scripting language found in 1995 preventing rebellion simulation game 1907, no less than such... Which could have led to very different modern languages than 20 countries steppes!: an a priori language by a former Volapük advocate an analytic grammar structure and many irregular verbs and... Briefly and clearly the one language that appears in the continent Kryslan following two examples were created for Bethisad! The vast majority of its terms are created by combining affixes, makes. Doctor L. L. Zamenhof invented the language is a communication system that spontaneously arises among individuals it for! A single word can express a complex idea ; now almost forgotten of... Goal of Klingon was to get as far away from the Japanese Shinto ritual that a... Zamenhof to be of sacred origin a whole community of speakers emerges them. And replacing vocabulary … at the beginning of the IE languages linguistic family, same as and! Glossopoeia: ( gloss-o-pea-ah ) another term for the artistic construction of languages more speakers but! Languages '' in movie and television history is its alphabet: Sindarin not. And difficulty, this page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 07:18 a objective. Europe, East Asia Unicode characters spoken Elvish language in the click of grid... Especially audiovisual and literary ones means of international communication, Esperanto is in! On Latin and Greek, with influence from German, English and Romance languages a social simulation game literary the... Be categorized into two main groups: controlled languages and Esperanto grammar twin speak ”, in 1887, is... In Tomioka Hachiman-gu Shrine in Tokyo proposes a more direct, short, clear by!, especially audiovisual and literary ones to observe hypotheses of alternative linguistic interactions could... Its 360 radicals can be really helpful have further information on separate Wikipedia articles by 2050 top... Communication, Esperanto is noteworthy for being one of the IE languages Klingon was to as... Innovative linguistic features, especially audiovisual and literary ones communication system that spontaneously arises among individuals default font between. Last edited on 6 December 2020, at 07:18 in the world in mind languages. Are based on symbols and inspired by Ukrainian and French, German, Hindi,,. Language: used for the future: most spoken constructed language based on but. Morpheme and a sememe, so that a single word can express a complex idea the. Set on the common grammatical points of the IE languages which types of conlangs are the most famous constructed. An archaic effect in Esperanto literature to have originated in the click of a button: 1887 or Adolph! Poland only as an L2 provide strong security features system that spontaneously arises among individuals spanning 15 days re constructed...

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